An observational study involving 26,916 individuals from a European consortium from six northern European countries with a median follow-up time of 10.5 years found significant inverse correlations between baseline serum 25(OH)D concentration and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality rates [Gaksch, 2017]. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0170791
The all-cause mortality rate hazard ratio (HR) increased from 1.0 at 80 nmol/l to 2.8 at 5 nmol/l. There was no significant increase in mortality rate for 25(OH)D concentration >100 nmol/L.
While the authors stated that there was no significant linear association between 25(OH)D and cancer mortality, careful inspection of their data indicates otherwise. When the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for Model 4 of Table 4 were recalculated assuming that the value for 25(OH)D concentration >100 nmol should be set to 1.00 by multiplying all values by 1/0.79 = 1.26, and then the HRs and the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) plotted vs. 25(OH)D concentration for each of the six categories, the linear fit to the lower 95% CI rose above 1.0 near 90 nmol/l. Only one lower CI for 25(OH)D below 90 nmol/l fell below 1.0, that for the lowest 25(OH)D category. This type of bias against benefits from vitamins in reporting results is widespread in clinical journals.
Tags: cancer,heart disease,Vitamin D